Examine one short-term and one long-term effect of exposure to violence.


Violence -> Bulling & Street Gangs
Short Term Effect: Depression
Olweas (1992): Found a correlation between frequent victimization in middle school and low self-esteem and depression by age of 23
Elliot and Kirkpatrick (1999): administered surveys to several thousand UK students and concluded that 20% of those who had been bullied had attempted suicide, whereas only 3% of participants who were not bullied had attempted suicide. (A common precursor to suicide is depression so depression most likely caused the attempted suicides)
-: Cultural Bias: UK
-: Using a survey asking about attempting suicide: some people may have been embarrassed to admit to attempting suicide, so they might have lied on the survey, causing inaccuracy in the data. Also easy to lie on a written survey, so the data might not be reliable.
Downward Comparison: comparing oneself to those who are worse off. Victims may find solace in the fact that their victimization did not leave major physical scars, or that it could have been worse.
Greenberg and Ruback (1992): When negative models (to compare to using downward comparison) are not immediately available, victims will create scenarios in which they received even greater physical, emotional, or personal damage. (Victims use this to prevent depression)
Thompson (2000): The internal “it-could-have-been-much-worse” exercise seems to help the victim to gain perspective, and may even relate to a focus on the positive aspect of being a survivor. (Used to prevent depression)
Snyder (2003): Did a longitudinal study observing 266 children from kindergarten to elementary school interacting on the playground. The researchers recorded instances of aggression and victimization and found that boys who experienced bullying were more likely to become depressed and demonstrate antisocial behaviors. Also found that antisocial behavior made girls into a target for bullying in both short and long term.
-: individual differences, there may have been other unmeasured factors that cause the depression or antisocial behaviors in the boys, not just the bullying
-: Cultural bias: (does not say which culture, but I am assuming America(n))

Long Term Effect: Low Self-Esteem
Kliewer et al. (2004): Using a sample of Spanish college students, they suggested that there is a direct relationship between victims’ perceptions of control over their bullying experience and the extent of long-term difficulties they experience as a result of bullying. Bullied students who believed they were able to influence and/or escape their bullies reported fewer negative long-term effects from having been bullied that did students who felt helpless to influence their situation while it was happening. Perception of control (and not reality of control) was key in this study, as no relationship was found between the various ways that students coped with being bullied and how they turned out. (Low self-esteem is a long-term effect of bullying, thus could be one of the ones they experienced as a result of bullying)
-: Cultural bias: Spain
Olweas (1992): Found a correlation between frequent victimization in middle school and low self-esteem and depression by age of 23
Depression may lead to a low self-esteem, thus one of the short term effect can cause a long term one.
Causes of Bullying (rest of marks)
- Azthic Azthic Dec 1, 2010



Mary


Short Term
Long Term
Delville (2002)
-->health and brain development
Participants: Hamsters
Method: Male pubescent hamsters placed for an hour for two weeks in adult hamster's cage--bullied
Control: adolescent male were placed in empty, unfamiliar cages
Results:
Cortisol (stress hormone) secreted by adrenal glands: found high in both groups during first day
Levels remained high for bullied hamsters
Too much prevents brain from learning new memory and from accessing memories.
Bullying has an effect on brain development
Carney/Hazler (2007)
-->supports research on cortisol-->bullying results with higher rate of illness
Measured levels in saliva of 94 6th grade students age 9-14.
Filled out questionnaire on experience of bullied or watching someone being bullied, additional measures of anxiety and trauma.
Method: Measured morning and lunchtime
Results: bullying does NOT directly cause high levels of cortisol---long-term bullying causes low levels
CORTISOL DEFICIENCY---hypocortisol--linked to chronic pain, post-traumatic stress disorder
Downward Comparison: comparing with those who are worse--solace in the fact that their victimization did not leave physical scars
Kliewer et al (2004)
Participants: Spanish college students
Results: direct relationship between victims' perceptions of control over their bullying experience and the extent of long term difficulties they experience.
Bullied ppl who believed they were able to influence and/or escape their bullies reported fewer negative long-term effects VS. students who were helpless.
Perception of control
Joseph (2003)
-->bullying on mental health
Participants: 331 adolescent students in England
Victims who were bullied suffered from PTSD--high levels of anxiety and other psychological/behavioural probs.
1/3 of students regardless of what form of bullying
Snyder (2003)
-->bullying on mental health--depression and antisocial
Method: Longitudinal study
Participants: 266 children from kinder. to elementary school
Boys who experienced bullying==more likely to experience depression and antisocial behavior
Antisocial behavior made girls into a target for bullying in both short term and long term