For each term below, contribute a unique idea (a definition, an example, an image, a video, a link to a relevant article or other web source, or other media) that helps us understand the term/concept. Be sure your contribution relates to the psychological connotation of the term if it has multiple connotations.

Put 4 ~ next to your contribution so we know who added it. - tgalvez tgalvez Dec 8, 2009


Amygdala

Part of the limbic systen that is responsible for our feelings of fear.
- sakujun_marylu sakujun_marylu Apr 13, 2010

Plays a role in the storage of emotional memories.
- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010


Bottom-up Processing

bottom-up processing is the idea that we form perceptions that are an exact replication of some objective outside world. for instance, in theories of vision, a bottom-up approach would claim that in order to form a percept of a cat for instance we basically have an internal "Polaroid picture" of a cat in our head. these theories then have to go to on explain how the percepts in our head are formed to match this objective outside world;
Perceptions or interpretations that are developed and determined through our senses rather than our expectations;
The idea that information input to the mind come from the sensory system (Textbook).
- vkung vkung Apr 14, 2010

Bottom-up processing, also known as "small chunk" processing, suggests that we perceive elements by starting with the smaller, more fine details of that element and then building upward until we have a solid representation of it in our minds.
- Chris_Lassman Chris_Lassman Apr 14, 2010


Chunking

Combining bits of similar information into a larger unit that can be remembered as a single chunk of information.
- sakujun_marylu sakujun_marylu Apr 13, 2010



Cognition

Cognition is based on one's mental representations of the worlds, such as images, words, and concepts.
- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010

The psychological result of perception, learning and reasoning.
- linjaime linjaime Feb 8, 2010



Distortions

(in context of memory)
Mistakes in memory, or false memories. Can result from the brain filling in black spaces in schemas.
- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010


Emotional Memory

Part of implicit memory; not well understood, but it may be formed via the limbic system and that even they may persist even when brain damage has destroyed other memories.
- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010


Emotion-focused Coping

Aims to control the emotional response of a stressful situaion rather than changing a problematic situation.
- sakujun_marylu sakujun_marylu Apr 13, 2010




Episodic Memory

Part of explicit memory; deals with personal experiences.
- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010


Explicit Memory

(also known as declarative memory) Long-term Memory that deals of fact based information. We are consciously aware of this information.
- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010


False Memories

False memories are distorted memories, caused because it is hard to distinguish between what has been experienced and whas been after an event/experience. Memory is reconstructive and is subject to distortions.
- vkung vkung Apr 14, 2010




Fight or Flight

The coordinated physical changes we experience in face of threat. The physical changes prepare us for action, either to escape the threat or to fight it. It is usually a subconscious process by which the decision of what to do is made based on previous experiences.
- sakujun_marylu sakujun_marylu Apr 13, 2010

Primes the body to either flee or fight in a threating situation, it is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system - Chris_Lassman Chris_Lassman Apr 14, 2010


Flashbulb Memory

A vivid and detailed memory of a momentous event that sparked a highly emotional response in the individual. Suggested by Brown and Kulik (1977)
- sakujun_marylu sakujun_marylu Apr 13, 2010




Hippocampus

Area of the brain that forms explicit memories.
- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010


Implicit Memory

(part of long-term memory) Deals with memories that we are not consciously aware of.
- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010

Mental Representations
A mental representation is what we interpret from what we already know, which also forms our schemas.
- vkung vkung Apr 14, 2010


Multi-store Model of Memory

A basic structure of memory suggested by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1986) and it is assumed that 1) memory consists of a number of separate stores and that 2) memory processes are sequential.
- vkung vkung Apr 14, 2010

- sakujun_marylu sakujun_marylu Apr 13, 2010
  • Attention

One has to be paying attention to the information in order to remember it.
  • Coding

Some sort of form given to the information so that one can remember it.
  • Rehearsal

Keeping the material memorized active by repeating it until it can be stored.
  • Sensory Memory

The form of memory when one first comes in contact with the experience. Information is taken in via the five senses and stays in this storage for only a few seconds. Only a small part of this memory will be stored as a part of the STM.
  • Short-term Memory: Memory that only lasts a short time.

- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010
Memory that only lasts 6-12 seconds and information must be rehearsed in order for it to be stored as part of LTM.
  • Long-term Memory: Memory that lasts a long time.

- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010
Unlimited capacity of memory storage which stores information for a lifetime. In most cases, details are not remembered, but rather, the brain remembers a basic outline. Memories in this storage are easily distorted.


Perception


The cognitive process that interprets and organizes information from the senses to produce some meaningful experience of the world. - Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010


Problem-focused Coping

One strategy used in stressful situations which is aimed to change the problematic situation that causes emotional stress.
- vkung vkung Apr 14, 2010



Procedural Memory

Part of implicit memory; the non-conscious memory for skills, habits, and actions.
- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010


Reconstructive Memory

Memory is said to have a reconstructive nature, which refers to the brain's active processing of information to make sense of the world. Memories can be influenced by many factors to cause it to be unreliable, because it is reconstructive.
- vkung vkung Apr 14, 2010



Repression

Conflicts, dangerous memories become repressed (pushed out of consciousness) when they become too overwhelming, intense, or anxiety-provoking. (refer to p81) Sigmund Freud suggested that forgetting events was caused by repression.
- sakujun_marylu sakujun_marylu Apr 13, 2010


Schema/Schema Theory

Schema: A mental representation of knowledge.
- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010
Schema Theory: A cognitive theory about information processing (we process information with schemas)
- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010

  • Encoding: transforming sensory information into a meaningful memory

- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010
  • Storage: creating a biological trace of the encoded information in memory, which is either consolidated or lost.

- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010
  • Retrieval: using the stored information.

- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010



Semantic Memory

Part of explicit memory; deals with general knowledge.
- Azthic Azthic Feb 8, 2010


Social Comparison Theory

Based on the idea that people learn about and asses themselves by comparison with others.
- vkung vkung Apr 14, 2010


Stereotyping

Fixed ideas about people (ethnicities, genders, etc). People who stereotype may be more prone to discriminate. Stereotyping is an example of how people think about themselves affect how they behave.
- vkung vkung Apr 14, 2010


Top-down Processing
In many situations, your knowledge or expectations will influence perception. This is called schema-driven or top-down processing; Top-down processing theories stress the role of interpretation and prior experience in the formation of perceptions. For instance, a top-down approach would say that your internal representation of a cat would be different depending on your prior experience with animals. This approach also does not necessitate a belief in an objective outside world the same way a bottom-up approach does; Perceptions or interpretations that are developed and determined through our expectations/schemas rather than our senses. - vkung vkung Apr 14, 2010


Working Memory Model

Based on the multi-store model, but states that STM is a single store that includes several components, whereas the multi-store model only include one. - vkung vkung Apr 14, 2010