Criminal Behavior Flashcards: http://www.flashcardmachine.com/1194386/3h5f

  • Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies.

There are 3 main brain imaging technologies. The first of these is EEG. EEG measures electrical processes in the brain. It is often used in sleep research and has given us much of the information that we know about phases of sleep. The second main brain imaging technology is PET. PET measures levels of glucose in the brain. In order for us to use PET we must inject radioactive glucose into the person’s brain. This makes PET a little bit invasive. We mostly use PET to find brain tumors and to compare brains. The third main brain imaging technology is fMRI. fMRI shows us a 3D picture of the brain and gives specific details about activity in the brain. fMRI can be used to figure out what area of the brain handles certain things, localization of function in the brain. Those are the 3 main brain imaging technologies.
Tommy Fritz - Azthic Azthic Dec 3, 2009
There are many brain technologies out there being used all the time. From fMRI to CAT scans, these technologies are used for one procedure only, to see if the brain is functioning properly. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners are used to measure energy that is emitted when positively charged particles from the radioactive material collide with electrons in someone’s brain. The scan can last from 30 minutes to 2 hours to complete. Another brain technology used is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans are use a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce highly detailed pictures of virtually all internal body structures. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, for a doctor to diagnose. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (X-rays). Last machine used for brain technology is an Electroencephalography (EEG) this is used to help diagnose people who have seizures and to identify what type. It can also be used to find the causes of confusion, and to evaluate head injuries, tumors, and other abnormal changes in body chemistry that affect the brain.

Prenatal Brain imaging technology can raise ethical or moral issues because they can provide information on a fetal brain that may or may not be productive. Upon finding out that their child has a possible defect prior to birth, parents can react in many ways, and not all these reactions are positive. Parents of less desirable fetuses might endeavor to alter their baby, or engineer the fetus to be “better” when such action is not necessary and maybe even counterproductive. Widespread use of technology to engineer children to be “better” could become part of society, a dangerous concept that is not dissimilar to making plastic surgery easy to get.
- bbhenrychen bbhenrychen Dec 3, 2009


Genetics and Behavior

  • With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent does genetic inheritance influence behavior?
Genetic inheritance only partially influences behavior- the environment and physiological factors also plays a large role. In twin studies done on finding the origin of homosexuality, factors other than genetics have contributed to the development of a homosexual mindset. Identical twins have the same exact DNA. In a specific family with identical twins, one twin is heterosexual and the other one is homosexual. Although they both have the same DNA, they are not of the same sexual orientation. This shows how genetics is not the only determinant of certain behaviors. The environment may have contributed to their sexual orientation, although they were both raised in the same family. This means that physiological factors (such as neurotransmitters, etc) also play a fairly large role on sexual orientation. Homosexual behaviors may only be partially caused by genes, but are also caused by other factors such as the environment or physiology.
- vkung vkung Dec 9, 2009

  • Examine one evolutionary explanation of behavior.
Evolution can have an effect on how a species behaves. For example a reason for why Starlings sing complicated songs is that the songs have been evolutionarily changed from simpler songs sung by earlier generations of Starlings. This aspect takes into effect that a Starling’s song attracts its mate and that the more flamboyant the song is the more likely that bird is to mate. Evolution also has a connotation of genetics and how genetic features are passed on. In keeping with the Starling example Starlings are also said to sing because of changing hormone levels that result from the lengthening days of spring. This trait of changing hormone levels in spring would be passed through the generations and would link to the need to mate in the spring to produce the next generation. Of these examples it is clear that evolution can effect a species behavior. - beirife beirife Dec 1, 2009

  • Discuss ethical considerations in research into genetic influences on behavior.


Biological Level of Analysis Objectives
For the assigned objectives below, you will provide a summary of the essential detail, key terms, and research/experimental studies that will work to thoroughly respond to the objective. Be sure to take into account the command term that begins each objective.

If you feel a peer has not thoroughly responded to an objective or provided inaccurate information, please go in and correct appropriately. The purpose of this page is for you to have single place from which to start your revision. This is a group effort and not a competition, so your thoughtful and thorough collaboration will not only benefit you, but your peers, as well.

General Learning Outcomes


  • Outline principles that define the biological level of analysis.
The biological level of analysis mainly deals with the physiological side of many of our actions. This includes things such as function of the brain, chemicals (such as hormones), neurotransmitters and the nervous system, other biological systems (such as the endocrine system), genetics, and evolution. Much of the biological research is done on animals to try to help us find out more about human behavior. When using the biological level of analysis one must be careful not to adopt s reductionist approach. If one takes a reductionist approach they will try to reduce all behavior to just biological factors or just environmental factors. This must not be done because our behavior is influenced by both the environment and biological principles.
This information came from page 38 of the textbook and our notes.
Tommy Fritz
- Azthic Azthic Dec 1, 2009
The biological level of analysis includes the argument that human behavior can be studied by their physiological origins; human biology. The relationship between biology and cognition is considered bidirectional, which means that they affect each other in both ways. Behavior is caused by biological processes in the brain, including the work of neurotransmitters, hormones, and genes. This leads to the nature versus nurture debate, in which it is debated whether behavior is caused by biological factors alone, or whether it’s caused by environmental factors. The interactionist approach takes both of these factors into account. So far, researchers have concluded that behavior is innate because it is genetically based, thus, evolution plays a role in behavior. The reductionist approach, which means breaking down large concepts into fundamentals that can be understood by interactions, makes it possible for an easier approach to human behavior. Researchers have simplified human behavior to the interactions between genes, neurotransmitters, or proteins.
- sakujun_marylu sakujun_marylu Dec 7, 2009

  • Explain how principles that define the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated in research.
One principle that defines the biological level of analysis is genetics. There have been family studies that looked at the genetic inheritance of IQ. 50% of the child’s genes are from the mom and the other 50% from the dad and will also share 25% of their genes with their grandparents. Through family studies, the different degrees of genetic relatedness were compared with behavior. It was found that if the heritability of IQ is high, there should be a strong correlation between a child and their mother, a weaker correlation between grandparents, and barely any between strangers. Through these particular family studies, researchers have found that genetics influences our intelligence. Another principle that defines the biological level of analysis is neurotransmitters. One commonly-known neurotransmitter is dopamine. Through drug trials, a correlation between dopamine levels and schizophrenics, the “dopamine theory of schizophrenia” was derived. In short, it states that schizophrenia may be partly caused from an overactive dopamine system in the brain. The drugs inhibited the production of dopamine in the brain, which in turn lowered the level of dopamine in the brain. It was found that psychotic behaviors displayed by schizophrenics were suppressed as well. Through drug trials, results showed that dopamine and psychotic behavior are interrelated.
- vkung vkung Dec 9, 2009
The principles of the biological level of analysis are the brain and the nervous system, chemicals and hormones and genetics. For each of these sub topics there are studies that can be performed. In studies that involve brain scans, directly looking at the brain and/or making post mortem observations would involve the Brain and Nervous System subtopic. For the Chemical and Hormones studies would include drug and blood testing. The Genetic subtopic covers research involving twin, family and adoption studies that look at the connection between genetics and environment as well as looking for genetic defects. - beirife beirife Dec 7, 2009

  • Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level of analysis.
One research method that is commonly used is twin studies. A big debate in psychology is the argument of nature versus nurture (nature being genetics and nurture being everything else, such as the environment). For certain diseases or behaviors, it is better to carry out a twin study using monozygotic twins. MZ twins have the same DNA, but sometimes they turn out a little differently. For example, one twin may be homosexual and the other heterosexual. This is when twin studies help the argument. Even when two different people have the same exact genetic make-up, their behaviors are still different, suggesting that genes are not the only determinant for behavior. A twin study is one research method that is used to discover the role of genetics in the development of specific behaviors.
- vkung vkung Dec 8, 2009

  • Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the biological level of analysis.
When conducting research, there are three major ethical principles that should be considered. The first of these three major principles is beneficence. This basically means that the study should maximize good outcomes and avoid unnecessary risk. The second principle to be considered is respect, which is the concern for the autonomy of persons and courtesy, including respect and autonomy for people who may not be able to care for themselves, such as children and the elderly. The last of these three principles is justice, which basically states that procedures and the distributions of costs and benefits should be fair. These three basic principles translate into six norms of scientific behavior, which are valid research design, competence of researcher, identification of consequences, selection of subjects, voluntary informed consent, and lastly, compensation for injury. These six norms of scientific behavior take into consideration the best interest of the participants and ensure that their involvement yields the best result in the most efficient manner. Furthermore, federal law governing human research requires that participants in a research must sign a consent statement. These consent statements must explain the purpose of the research, the expected duration of subjects’ participation, a description of the procedures, any foreseeable risks or discomforts to the participants, as well as describe any benefits that the participants may have. They must also describes alternatives to participation, inform the participants about how confidentiality will be maintained and whether compensation for harm is available, and indicate whom to contact for answers to questions about the research and subjects’ rights or in case of a research-related injury. Lastly, it must indicate that participation is voluntary and that the participants may discontinue their participation at any time without being obligated to provide an explanation. When the above guidelines are considered, an effective and ethically correct study, which takes into consideration the best interests of its participants, will be conducted. - VonLyn VonLyn Dec 7, 2009


Physiology and Behavior

  • Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain.
In an attempt to prove his hypothesis that feelings of distress can be relieved through the expression of emotions through words, Lieberman and his team designed two experiments. In the first one, participants were asked to play Cyberball, which is a game that consists of the participant playing catch with two virtual players. After a while, the two virtual players were programmed to stop throwing the ball to the participant who is being studied. As a result, the participant experienced social rejection. When this happens, the anterior cingulate cortex of the brain, which is associated with distress, experienced more activity. On the other hand, some participants did not have much activity in that area of the brain, meaning that they are not that distressed. Instead, they had a lot of activity in their right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex, which is the part of the brain which is associated with the expression of thoughts and emotions into words and language. This shows that if there is more activity in the right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex, then activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is hampered, making the participant less distressed.
The second experiment also yielded similar results. In this experiment, half the participants were asked to match up pictures of emotions to other pictures of similar emotions while the other half of the participants were asked to match up the pictures to words which describe these emotions. In the end, Lieberman and his team discovered that this experiment yielded very similar results to the first experiment with the Cyberball. The first group experienced more activity in their amygdala, a part of the brain which is associated with distress, while the latter group experienced more activity in the right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex. Thus, the second experiment also shows how expressing emotions through words can thwart activity in the areas of the brain associated with distress. As a result, people will feel less distressed.
Both of these experiments shows that feelings of distress can be relieved through the expression of these emotions through words. This is evident through how an increased amount of activity in the right ventral prefrontal cortex can cause a decrease in the activity in the parts of the brain associated with distress. As a result, both of these studies ultimately show that functions are in fact localized in certain areas of the brain. - VonLyn VonLyn Dec 1, 2009
Different parts of the brain control different things. This is known as localization of function in the brain. One study done by Lieberman shows this. The aim of his study was to see if putting bad feelings into words could actually make you feel better. The first part of this study consisted of an experiment where participants were asked to play “cyberball”, a virtual game of catch, with 2 other people while having their brain scanned using fMRI. After a while the other people stopped throwing the ball to the participant and just threw to each other. Even though the other people were fake, the participant still felt rejected. The social rejection that the participant felt then lit up the anterior cingulated cortex. This proves localization of function in the brain.
The study done by Lieberman had a second part that proved localization of function in the brain. In this second part people were asked to match pictures of faces to other faces and then to words. When matching pictures of emotions on faces with words the fMRI showed less activity in the Amygdala, an area of the brain that deals with emotional distress. While there was less activity in the amygdala there was more in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex, an area of the brain that deals with language production and verbalizing thoughts. This showed that talking things out may indeed make you feel better and it proves localization of function in the brain because the certain areas were handling certain things.
Tommy Fritz - Azthic Azthic Dec 3, 2009

  • Using one or more examples, explain effects of neurotransmission on human behavior.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit nerve impulses throughout the body. Dopamine and serotonin are two neurotransmitters that affect our mood and cognitive function. While dopamine affects our motivation and pleasure, serotonin affects one’s obsessions and compulsions, and also affects memory. Dopamine affects brain processes that control emotions and the capacity to feel pleasure and pain, as well as balance and controlled movements. It also affects award-seeking behaviors and thrill-seeking behaviors. Too much dopamine can cause schizophrenia, while too little can cause Parkinson’s disease. Serotonin affects moods and emotions, sleep patterns, sexual desire and function, appetite, memory, learning, and some social behaviors. Usually for women, a lack of serotonin can cause depression and a more cautious personality. For men, a lack of serotonin causes more impulsive behaviors, but doesn’t necessarily cause depression. - linjaime linjaime Dec 1, 2009
Neurotransmitters carry signals throughout our body by communication circuits and determine how we feel and act. An imbalance of neutransmitters can cause abnormal behavior and affect one’s daily activities. Oxytocin regulates the milk production and produces a feeling of intimacy when people socialize. When in low levels, it causes women in particular to be less nurturing and present more stressful behaviors. This neurotransmitter which primarily affects females can cause women to be more aggressive and potentially leads to anxiety disorders. Similarly, a low level of serotonin can cause a person to be more aggressive, panicky, and lose their appetite. Usually, this neurotransmitter is associated with melatonin and regulates sleep and affects one’s appetite.

Neurotransmission requires the release of neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters can greatly affect our behavior. One example is Serotonin. Serotonin affects many things in us; including appetite, sleep/wake cycles, and mood. If you are in a great mood it is because you have a bunch of Serotonin in your body. If you are in a bad mood it may be because of too little Serotonin in your body. Serotonin can also make you feel hungry and tired. That is how Serotonin influences human behavior.
Another neurotransmitter that can affect our behavior is Dopamine. Dopamine influences things like alertness, motivation, and sleeping well. If you are very alert it may be because of the amount of dopamine in your body. If you are well motivated to do something it may also be caused by dopamine. If dopamine can influence how alert or motivated you are it is not hard to see how it would affect our behavior. It could make us very alert during a lesson one day, and then the next day, have us half asleep. It could also make us really motivated to do our homework at times, while other times it could make us not want to do anything. That is how dopamine can influence our human behavior.
Tommy Fritz - Azthic Azthic Dec 3, 2009


  • Using one or more examples, explain functions of two hormones in human behavior.
Two hormones, estrogen and testosterone, affect our moods. A higher level of testosterone typically causes men to be more aggressive, less compromising and more competitive. This may cause a person to be angry. Testosterone in low levels can also cause men to be more irritable or grumpy. Estrogen typically causes women to have mood swings, anxiety, tearfulness, as well as irritability. This could cause some women with lots of estrogen to be more upset easily. These two hormones, estrogen and testosterone, both affect the moods of women and men.
- vkung vkung Dec 1, 2009
Hormones can cause us to do many things. One example is Melatonin. Melatonin is also known as “The Hormone of Darkness” because it influences our sleep. When we have melatonin released into our bodies we begin to feel sleepy. Light plays a role in when our melatonin releases; which is why we sleep at night when it is dark. Without Melatonin we would probably not be able to fall asleep so it is a necessary hormone in human behavior.
Another hormone that causes us humans to behave the way we do is Testosterone. Testosterone is a hormone found in everyone, but especially in men. Testosterone is the male sex hormone. It can cause us to be aggressive, risk-taking, dominating, sharp, and many other things. It also controls reproductive behaviors. Testosterone helps men build muscle and grow facial hair. Without testosterone men would not have many of the features that make us men. That is why it is a necessary hormone in human behavior.
Tommy Fritz - Azthic Azthic Dec 3, 2009

A hormone is a chemical substance released into the bloodstream that affects physiological processes and activity, such as growth and metabolism. Testosterone is a hormone that is more dominant in men, but is also present in women. For men, it affects sperm production, amount of facial hair, muscles, and having a deep voice. For women, testosterone also maintains muscle and bone strength. A higher level of testosterone can lead to a less compromising, more aggressive personality, and also increases competitiveness. A lower level of testosterone can lead to irritability, tiredness, and difficulty with concentration as well as memory loss. Estrogen is a hormone that is more dominant in women. It is an essential part of sexual reproduction and the menstrual cycle. Estrogen protects women against Alzheimer’s disease and increases if one has a good level of cholesterol. Estrogen also affects aggression, and too much of this hormone can lead to lack of concentration, food cravings, anxiety, mood swings, fatigue, and irritability. - linjaime linjaime Dec 3, 2009

  • Discuss two effects of the environment on physiological processes.
Environmental factors can prove to affect one physiological process through scientific studies. In a series of studies conducted by Rosenzweig and Bennett, the researchers placed rat into an environment with toys and an environment without any toys. The aim of the study was to measure the effect of either enrichment or deprivation on the development of neurons in the cerebral cortex. After 30 to 60 days, as a result, the rats that had been in the stimulating environment increased in the thickness of the cortex, whereas the rats’ cortex in the deprived environment did not. In addition, the frontal lobe, which is associated with thinking, planning, and decision making, was heavier in the rats that had been in the stimulating environment. Furthermore, if the rats were placed in a stimulating environment with other rats, the thickness increased even more. Research studies show that the cortical thickness increased even further if the rats are placed with other rats. In all, the combination of the rats in an environment with toys along with other rats proved to be the best condition for developing cerebral thickness.
- iamjeff33 iamjeff33 Dec 1, 2009

  • Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behavior.

One of the principles that outline cognitive psychology is that mental processes guide behavior. An example of this would be one’s motivation to do something. Motivational behaviors come from the neurotransmitter, dopamine. Motivation causes someone to have a strong and positive mindset for achievement. If someone is more motivated to do well on a test, he or she will most likely study harder and take care of his/her health (due to a higher-than-normal level of dopamine in the brain). If another person is less motivated (due to a lower level of dopamine), he/she will not work as hard to do well on the test. When someone is more motivated to do something, there is more dopamine in that person’s brain which causes more positive thoughts and the better he/she will do on a particular activity.
- vkung vkung Dec 9, 2009 ||

  • Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies.

There are 3 main brain imaging technologies. The first of these is EEG. EEG measures electrical processes in the brain. It is often used in sleep research and has given us much of the information that we know about phases of sleep. The second main brain imaging technology is PET. PET measures levels of glucose in the brain. In order for us to use PET we must inject radioactive glucose into the person’s brain. This makes PET a little bit invasive. We mostly use PET to find brain tumors and to compare brains. The third main brain imaging technology is fMRI. fMRI shows us a 3D picture of the brain and gives specific details about activity in the brain. fMRI can be used to figure out what area of the brain handles certain things, localization of function in the brain. Those are the 3 main brain imaging technologies.
Tommy Fritz - Azthic Azthic Dec 3, 2009
There are many brain technologies out there being used all the time. From fMRI to CAT scans, these technologies are used for one procedure only, to see if the brain is functioning properly. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners are used to measure energy that is emitted when positively charged particles from the radioactive material collide with electrons in someone’s brain. The scan can last from 30 minutes to 2 hours to complete. Another brain technology used is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans are use a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce highly detailed pictures of virtually all internal body structures. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, for a doctor to diagnose. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (X-rays). Last machine used for brain technology is an Electroencephalography (EEG) this is used to help diagnose people who have seizures and to identify what type. It can also be used to find the causes of confusion, and to evaluate head injuries, tumors, and other abnormal changes in body chemistry that affect the brain.
-Steffon

Prenatal Brain imaging technology can raise ethical or moral issues because they can provide information on a fetal brain that may or may not be productive. Upon finding out that their child has a possible defect prior to birth, parents can react in many ways, and not all these reactions are positive. Parents of less desirable fetuses might endeavor to alter their baby, or engineer the fetus to be “better” when such action is not necessary and maybe even counterproductive. Widespread use of technology to engineer children to be “better” could become part of society, a dangerous concept that is not dissimilar to making plastic surgery easy to get.
- bbhenrychen bbhenrychen Dec 3, 2009


Genetics and Behavior

  • With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent does genetic inheritance influence behavior?
Genetic inheritance only partially influences behavior- the environment and physiological factors also plays a large role. In twin studies done on finding the origin of homosexuality, factors other than genetics have contributed to the development of a homosexual mindset. Identical twins have the same exact DNA. In a specific family with identical twins, one twin is heterosexual and the other one is homosexual. Although they both have the same DNA, they are not of the same sexual orientation. This shows how genetics is not the only determinant of certain behaviors. The environment may have contributed to their sexual orientation, although they were both raised in the same family. This means that physiological factors (such as neurotransmitters, etc) also play a fairly large role on sexual orientation. Homosexual behaviors may only be partially caused by genes, but are also caused by other factors such as the environment or physiology.
- vkung vkung Dec 9, 2009

  • Examine one evolutionary explanation of behavior.
Evolution can have an effect on how a species behaves. For example a reason for why Starlings sing complicated songs is that the songs have been evolutionarily changed from simpler songs sung by earlier generations of Starlings. This aspect takes into effect that a Starling’s song attracts its mate and that the more flamboyant the song is the more likely that bird is to mate. Evolution also has a connotation of genetics and how genetic features are passed on. In keeping with the Starling example Starlings are also said to sing because of changing hormone levels that result from the lengthening days of spring. This trait of changing hormone levels in spring would be passed through the generations and would link to the need to mate in the spring to produce the next generation. Of these examples it is clear that evolution can effect a species behavior. - beirife beirife Dec 1, 2009

  • Discuss ethical considerations in research into genetic influences on behavior.